Know What is a Computer and its Generation Development

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Know What is a Computer and its Generation Development

The computer is a very important device today to help complete your daily work quickly, in addition to its small size making it easy to carry around.

However, if we look at the past few decades regarding the history of computers and their development, which at that time were not as sophisticated as they are now, their size is also quite large and heavy.

The history and development of computers is divided into five generations, each generation is defined based on the development technology used to make the computer operate. Each of these development technologies resulted in computers that were smaller, cheaper, more efficient and more powerful.

History of Computers from Generation to Generation

Check out the explanation below to find out in more detail the history of computers and their development from the first generation of computers to the present:

1. First Generation Computers (1946 – 1959) Vacuum Tubes

First Generation Computers (1946 – 1959) Vacuum Tubes

The first generation of computers was made in 1946 by using a vacuum tube as a basic component. Vacuum tubes are an inefficient material because they produce excessive heat and also require a large amount of electricity to work.

ENIAC or Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer is one example of the first generation of computers made by Mauchly and Echert. ENIAC used 18,000 vacuum tubes measuring 1800 square feet and weighing up to 30 tons.

The first generation of computers used machine language, which was the most basic programming language that only computers could understand. This generation of computers has a limited ability to solve a problem at a time.

To perform the input, punched cards and paper tape are used. The resulting output is a print-out. Even with very limited functions, the cost of making this generation of computers is fantastic, which is around one million dollars.

2. Second Generation Computers (1959 – 1965) Transistor

Second Generation Computers (1959 – 1965) Transistor

Transistor technology became the beginning of the emergence of the second generation of computers, which replaced the role of the vacuum tube in the first generation of computers. The development of the transistor symbolized the advancement of technology at that time.

When compared to vacuum tubes, transistors are smaller in size and generate less heat, and their failure rate is also lower when compared to computers built with vacuum tubes. As a result, transistors were able to create computers that were smaller, faster and cheaper than the first generation of computers.

This generation of computers also experienced developments in its programming language. Machine language that used to be used is now replaced with assembly language or what is also known as symbolic language.

This means that programmers can give instructions in words. At the same time, high-level programming languages ​​are being developed such as Common Business-Oriented Language (CBOL) and Formula Translator (FORTRAN). This programming language change provides the benefits of faster and more accurate computing.

3. Third Generation Computers (1965 – 1971) Integrated Circuit

Third Generation Computers (1965 – 1971) Integrated Circuit

This third generation computer uses Integrated Circuits (ICs) to replace transistors as computer components. Transistors in this generation have been miniaturized and placed on ICs, one IC consists of several transistors, resistors and capacitors.

IC was first developed by Jack Kilby an electrical engineer who was later awarded the Nobel Prize for his invention. How not, with his invention, it provided a significant increase in the speed and efficiency of a computer, and made computers in this generation much smaller than before.

Computers in this generation became the first computers where users were able to interact using a keyboard and monitor with an operating system interface, an advancement when compared to punched paper.

As a result of the development of these technologies, computers at that time were accessible to the public because of their lower prices and smaller sizes.

4. Fourth Generation Computers (1971 – Present) Microprocessors

Fourth Generation Computers (1971 – Present) Microprocessors
This is the generation that you are in now, the computers you see around you are the computers of the fourth generation, “Microprocessor” is the main concept behind this generation. In one chip, consists of thousands of transistors and other circuit elements that are connected into one.

The development of the fourth generation of computers cannot be separated from Intel, one of the chip manufacturing companies that has created the Intel 4004 Chip which is the first step in the development of computer technology which then replaces computer components that were once as big as one room, now only as big as a fist.

In 1971 the first computer made by IBM was created specifically designed for home use and in 1984 the Macinthos was first introduced by Apple. Seeing the increase in computers in this generation gave birth to the idea to create a computer network, which eventually led to the development and birth of the internet.

Another major advancement that occurred in this generation was the creation of the Graphical User Interface (GUI), the mouse, and other amazing advances to produce portable computers that can be carried anywhere or commonly called laptops.

5. Fifth Generation Computers (Now – Future) Artificial Intelligence

Fifth Generation Computers (Now – Future) Artificial Intelligence

The fifth generation of computers has technology based on artificial intelligence, and it is still in the development stage. The purpose of the development of this fifth generation computer is to produce a computer that is able to respond to the input of the language we speak and has the ability to study the surrounding environment and adapt itself.

Quantum computers, molecular and nanotechnology are the keys to this generation of computer technology. So it can be said that this generation of computers will have intelligence like intelligence in humans.

After reading the history of computers above and their comparisons from each generation, it will certainly amaze you for the achievements that have occurred, I mean just try to imagine if today's computers are still as big as the first generation of computers, can you imagine how big a building is needed for an office to store several computers? computer? What an absurd thing!

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